March 3, 2020

Facial Cream Containing Small Molecule Inhibitor for Hair Loss

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The smoothened molecule inhibitor is known as PEZ2020D or “SmoothSkin." Smoothskin is a synthetic molecule that is involved in the stem cells of mammals inhibiting the effects of stem cells, thereby leading to loss of hair. This potent molecule can be successfully used to get rid of unwanted hair, thereby proving to be a viable beauty and skincare product.  
This paper looks into the five-step regulatory strategy that PharmaEZ will use to get US FDA approval in order to put the product into the market. Their latest product is PE2020D (Smooth Skin). Smoothskin is a signalling molecule that was covered by PharmaEZ. 
The company is currently interested in marketing PEZ2020D as a facial cream for removing facial hair. Once PEZ2020D is approved by the FDA and out on the market, this drug will help many patients who are dealing with mild to severe skin disorders and generate a big revenue that could offset the declining sales due to patent expiration.

A Goal – a step by step strategy for obtaining US regulatory approval for PEZ2020D (Smooth Skin).

1. Objectives

a) A regulatory strategy for US approval


(1) Preclinical trials
Preclinical trials allow scientists to vet the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other substances prior to testing them on human subjects. The reason this process is necessary for PharmEZ is directly linked with the need for the FDA to prove that the SmoothSkin molecule is safe to be tested on real human subjects. These studies are often undertaken in the lab.
(2) Clinical Trials
Clinical trial evidence may be requested during the certification process, but otherwise, the procedure is really similar to the US 510(k) process. It is possible during the review process that a clinical trial could be requested in order to provide additional support to the application in cases where there have been changes made to the product that could affect the intended use, or the material or composition of the product, or major changes to the design of the product that may affect its safety and effectiveness.
(3) NDA application for FDA approval for marketing in the US
At the point when a substance is prepared for clinical investigation, yet before any testing in human subjects, the drug engineer is obligated to embrace the FDA. This procedure starts when the drug's support (typically the drug producer or wholesaler) applies for the new drug (NDA) with the office. Government law necessitates that a drug is the subject of an endorsed promotional application for it to be lawfully dispatched across state lines. An affirmed NDA application furnishes the engineer with a specialized exclusion to this government regulation so clinical agents can disseminate a drug to various investigation habitats over the US.
(4) Description of the meetings that will be scheduled with the FDA and when in the process, they will occur.
A 510(k)-premarket notice ought to be submitted to exhibit generous identicalness, and our organization must stick to the general controls, including yearly foundation enlistment, product posting, legitimate product naming, great assembling practices.
(5) Design post-marketing surveillance for potential adverse events.
SmoothSkin is a product for indications that are common and would not be classifiable as a HUD, as it would be a treatment option for more than 6,513 individuals in the US annually. Therefore, there will be no orphan device application routes available for SmoothSkin.


b) Potential Side Effects

(1) Types of side effects predicted for Smoothskin
There two types of side effects, namely irritation of the skin and lack of appetite.
(2) Conditions inhibitors and agonists of Smoothened signalling are currently being tested. Inhibitors include penicillin, aspirin, and protease.
(3) Types of side effects have been reported.
Two types of side effects have been reported namely irritation of the skin and lack of appetite
(4) Types of side effects have been reported for naturally occurring inhibitors and agonists of Smoothened signalling.
Two types of side effects for naturally occurring inhibitors include irritation of the skin and lack of appetite
(5) Types of preclinical and clinical tests would be possible and appropriate to rule out serious potential side effects. The lab attendant will check how the drug is metabolized, distributed, absorbed, then disregarded in the body.

c) Timeline for the entire process – 7 years

B Some anticipated problems
1. Agreement on one regulatory approach
2. Defining the focus of each objective
3. Finding the appropriate literature
I. Introduction & Background

A Background Information on Company

PharmEZ is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in New York, New York. The company was founded by Charles Pfizer in 1849. The company strives to be one of the top pharmaceutical companies in the world and focuses on developing, manufacturing, and commercializing best-in-class medicines for better patient care. Our company has a portfolio of top medical products in a variety of categories, including pharmaceutical, medical devices, biologics, and consumer health fields.

B How this project fits into the overall research/business strategy

With the help from the latest acquisition and continuous developing plans for the pipeline, PharmEZ recently designed a new synthetic small molecule that is a potent Smoothen Inhibitor (PEZ2020D or SmoothSkin). The company is currently interested in marketing PEZ2020D as a facial cream for removing facial hair. Once PEZ2020D is approved by the FDA and out on the market, this drug will help many patients who are dealing with mild to severe skin disorders and generate a big revenue that could offset the declining sales due to patent expiration. 

SOCIAL MEDIA AS A MARKETING STRATEGY: A WEAPON OF WAR IN THE DEFENCE BUSINESS (TENTATIVE TITLE)

CHAPTER 1

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

This paper focuses on the impact social media has in modern information-age warfare. “The adaptation of social media as a tool of modern warfare should not be surprising” (Jarred, 2017) as internet technology has evolved impressively in the last two decades. Therefore, it was predictable the social media at some point could have played a significant role in contemporary society, meeting the needs of modern conflicts. After all, it is an inexpensive ‘weapon’ which for his nature is accessible to everyone, almost everywhere. Everyone could create a brand bolstering his message all over the world. Nonstate actors can build influence operations as state actors do as they may access to the same tools.

This study explores how a nonstate actor such as Daesh has hit the headlines and influence modern warfare remarkably. Daesh made use of the social platform in a way which either a nonstate nor a state actor has never done before. In a few months, it impressed the world, convincing everyone that “war will never be the same again” (Patrikarakos, 2017, p.202).

Furthermore, it is worth to understand the rationale behind the Daesh precipitous rise to power within an online social environment using a theoretical framework. The Social Cognitive Theory as human functioning is “explained in terms of triadic reciprocity in which behaviour, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other,” (Bandura, 1986, p. 18). Moreover, in his Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication, Bandura advocates that individuals are also used to acquiring behaviour by observing a model in the mass media ecosystem (2001). 

This paper will adopt an empirical research method through the Daesh case study, which allows the reader to understand how a nonstate actor could ‘weaponise’ social media, affecting the modern information-age conflicts.

1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES 

Systematic and effective use of social media is not new to terroristic groups such as Daesh and its progenitor Al-Qaeda as they had always been “technologically savvy” (Patrikarakos, 2017 p.206). The Internet has always been a multifaceted tool as it is accessible, it could be used anonymously and for overt means. Therefore, it is important to understand the rationale behind his use. Thus, the research question is:
“How social media has been used as a weapon in modern warfare by non-state actors such as Daesh (and its progenitor Al-Qaeda)?”
In order to answer to the above problem, this paper will focus on the following objectives:
a) To understand how social media is a multi-purpose tool in modern warfare,
b) To look at the Daesh Social Media Strategy,
c) To appreciate the contribution of Daesh’s ‘millennials fighters’ on weaponizing social media.

1.3 DAESH VS ISLAMIC STATE: NAME MATTERS.


The West has never had a coherent strategy to fight it, and it has even known how to call it. Choosing a proper name, it is not a superfluous aspect: chose how to name things is the first step in understanding them. The dispute, in this case, is between calling it the Islamic State or Daesh.
The Islamic State (it also applies to the Is, Isis, Isil variants) refers to a State in all respects, as at least it claims to be the one led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi until October 2019 and now by his successor Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi. The so-called Isis was once an Iraqi section of Al-Qaeda, which later became the Islamic State in Iraq, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria and, finally, proclaimed itself an Islamic State. The flattening of the name down to the pure Islamic State is simply an attempt to remove geographical peculiarities, providing only one State entity. Just think that another way to indicate the Islamic State is al-Dawla, literally 'The State'.

Actually, this state has no real homogeneous borders, nor a united territory. Not surprisingly, the names before the self-proclamation wanted by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in 2014 include specific geographical areas, such as Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham (Arabic term for Greater Syria) or as that Isil in which the 'L' stands for Levante, that is potentially also the territories of Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Lebanon. 

The more real a group is seen to be, the more dominant its status becomes inside its institutional environment (Parsons, 1951); accordingly, President Obama argued, “ISIL is not Islamic . . . and [is] certainly not a state” as the way we talk about things changes how we perceive them. (Khan, 2014). Thus, the author of this paper prefers to use the term Daesh instead of Islamic State (in all of its variants).


1.4 PAPER FRAMEWORK 

The paper will be divided into three chapters that will guide the reader towards the conclusion. Chapter 1 introduces the framework of the paper, going through his background and the research problem with the related objectives. Furthermore, it explains the reason why the use of name Daesh is preferable to other names of the terroristic group such as Islamic State (IS), Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL). Chapter 2 aims to examine the literature review associated with the spreading of social media, the Social Cognitive Theory and the social media weapon behind the rise to the power of Daesh. Moreover, it will review the literature on contemporary information-age warfare. Chapter 3…

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Social media has always been considered a new topic and the research on his effect is increasing as it appears to be a living issue. In the recent past, it has affected the information-age warfare as nonstate actors such as Daesh massively uses social media. Despite the spreading of social media, the existing literature is insufficient to cover all its nuances, which advice the importance of a different-perspective examination. The first part of this chapter covers social media as a whole, providing an understanding of what it is; after that, the author reviews the relevant literature by providing an overview of Daesh use of social media. The third part aims at examining the theoretical framework behind the phenomenon through the lens of mass communication and Social Cognitive Theory. The fourth part will focus on modern conflicts, where information is becoming increasingly influential. This literature review will lead to the conclusions of the chapter where the author will state the reason for this study.

2.2 DEFINING SOCIAL MEDIA

To understand what are the potentials of social media, to comprehend their limits and to appreciate how to get the most of them, we need to unfold what is behind these two words. One of the biggest mistakes that a citizen, a company, a brand can make is to leap into social media environment and to use them with no real clue of how they work and how to protect themselves against them. With this in mind, it will indeed be appropriate to answer these questions first: how we can define social media? Do social media have the same meaning all over the world? This will make us understand what was wrongly regarded as familiar from its creation to the present day, highlighting its changed attitude in a different environment. Before diving into the intriguing world of social media, we need to understand when they were born. An apparently easy issue. However, the answers are not unique and do not all agree. 

 “Social media is fast becoming a term that means everything to everyone, and thus does not really mean anything anymore” (Gupta and Brooks 2013, p.17). First and foremost, when dealing with this concept one has to draw a line to two associated concepts which are often linked with it: Web 2.0 and User Generated Content (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010, p.60). The main idea behind Web 1.0 was to give the users the possibility to visualise static hyperlinks. In fact, according to Cormode and Krishnamurthy, “content creators were few in Web 1.0 with the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content.” (2008, p.2). On the other hand, there is the Web 2.0, a term which is closely associated with it thanks to O'Reilly Media's Web 2.0 conference at the end of 2004. Technology-wise, it is completely equivalent to Web 1.0, as the network-level infrastructure continues to consist of TCP/IP and HTTP (to add a note) and hypertext is still the basic concept of the relations between the contents. The difference, more than anything else, lies in the contents, which are generated dynamically and the resulting users’ approach to the Web, which fundamentally passes by simple consultation the possibility of contributing to populate and nourish the Web with own contents.

The internet has increasingly been the digital structure in which User Generated Content has grown, “empower[ing] users to develop, create, rate, and distribute Internet content and applications” (O'Reilly 2005). This means “the Web is evolving from a business-to-consumer marketing media to one where peer-to-peer generation and sharing of data are the norms” (O’Connor 2008). The role each user can play into the web is getting much more crucial. Everyone is a potential ‘main character’ of the new Web at the point that in 2006, the TIME magazine dedicated his mirrored cover as Person of the Year to each of us: “You — Yes, You — Are TIME's Person of the Year” (TIME.com, 2006).
Based on the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that social media is increasingly becoming a vital tool in the hand of each internet user in empowering his role and bolstering his narrative (Comm and Taylor, 2015, p.1). However, one trouble with examining this field is the lack of standard definitions of social media as they are “fragmented by platform” (Bartlett and Reynolds, 2015). With this in mind, “are social media wolves in sheep’s clothes?” (Tuten and Solomon 2015, p.19).

2.3 DAESH AND SOCIAL MEDIA

Having set the scene on the contemporary social media arena, the author reviews the relevant literature on how nonstate actors such as Daesh uses social media as it is a central part of their modus operandi. 
In 2014 Daesh swept across Iraq with an operation that immediately went viral. Fighters posted selfie during a crucial phase of that battle, far from keeping that actions a secret. The messages shared by the militants were immediately boosted through the main social media platform under the hashtag #AllEyesOnISIS, specifically created for the beginning of the military campaign: suddenly t went viral (Singer and Brooking, 2019, p.5). Likewise, Farwell states the victory was inevitable as that powerful and so emotional videos reached and influenced at the same time journalist, adversaries, common people everywhere (Farwell, 2014, P.50).

The majority of studies and research point out the effect ISIS has reached in echoing his brand through the main social media platforms. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how they have been able to maintain a presence online as for the author of this paper it is most valuable insight. Internet censorship and his circumvent has always been an issue on a wide range, and Daesh’s rise to power has echoed these difficulties.

The devotion to the brand is an issue in our society as the brand is becoming ‘proxy religion’ in today’s life (Ham, 2001, p.2). Everyone should have an interest in empowering his image in the market using emotional or logical messages. Interestingly McDivitt argues that “a brand is not simply an identifier or a label, it is an identity,...[it] can be viewed as a seed; it must be designed, positioned and driven to grow” (2003, p.13). It is not a matter of the companies to brand themselves positioning at the top of the scale: it is also a matter of nations as they try to brand their exclusivity in reference to their cultural identity, historical heritage and geographical position (Van Ham, 2001). Accordingly, Marsh and Fawcett agreed that branding is not just about the marketing of products or services as it has evolved into the branding of states, countries and political parties (2011).
However, a gap identified is to understand the reason why a terroristic group relying on terrorist attacks and guerrilla procedures, decide to allocate its (apparently) limited resources to keep a social networking system alive instead of acquiring proper military capabilities.



2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.4 DEFINING MODERN CONFLICTS

“The first, the supreme, the most far-reaching act of judgement that the statesman and commander have to make is to establish the kind of war on which they are embarking”. (Carl von Clausewitz, cited in Fastabend 1995). There are innumerable shades of war, no one similar to the previous one. It is about technological differences, political environment, social perceptions. However, when it comes to understanding theories behind them and the path to victory, all the nuances of the conflicts come down to a significant dichotomy: asymmetric versus an asymmetric approach. Symmetric conflicts are more about having superior weapons, larger armies: it’s about numbers and the control of the territory. The two world wars represent a significant example of a struggle over territory. In this regard, information plays a significant role but it is not considered as vital as it is in an asymmetric war. Deception campaign, detailed knowledge about the opposing commander are of little value when compared with physical protection and the overall superiority of the military power. 
On the other hand, asymmetric conflicts are considered information-centric as “the struggle is fundamentally not over territory but over people, because the people hold critical information, […] because holding territory is not enough to secure victory” (Berman, Felter and Shapiro, 2019, p.7,9). The new battlefield is much bigger than a physical territory and his borders belong to everyone. In an asymmetric environment, every weakness could become a strength as the main parameter which affect the players is not based on the number of tanks owned but on the perception of that number. To summarize, “asymmetrical warfare is challenging the parameters of the military domain” (Brazzoli, 2007, p.218).

In the aftermath of the U.S. victory in the Gulf War against Iraq, Arquilla and Ronfeldt in an innovative article titled ‘Cyberwar is coming!’ pointed out the vital role information would have played in modern conflicts. They envisaged the battlefield as a place perceived in a different way by his players like a “chess game where you see the entire board, but your opponent sees only its own pieces—you can win even if he is allowed to start with additional powerful pieces” (Arquilla and Ronfeldt, 1993). They warned about the new battles in which ‘cyber soldiers’ might hinder military capabilities. Moreover, the envisaged what they called “netwar[…][as] a new way of thinking and a new way of conflict “ (Singer and Brooking, 2019). A new approach in waging a war, “a new entry on the spectrum of conflict that spans economic, political, and social as well as military forms of war” (Arquilla and Ronfeldt, 1993). In other words, the availability and the understanding of information itself seen as “weapon, used to dismantle some realities and to build others in their place” (Singer and Brooking, 2019, p.182). If this was true almost 30 years ago, it is even truer today as we live in an information society in which the threatscape is endlessly fluctuating through uncertainty, frictions and misperception. The nature of the conflict is evolving much faster than militaries. Possibly, this is intrinsic to the nature of conflicts but “in a networked world with a globalised media and the speed of the Internet, there are causes and effects which can balloon unexpectedly in their importance yet deflate just as rapidly as attention is turned elsewhere” (Mackay, Rowland and Tatham, 2011).
The weaker side is unlike to wage a war against a military superpower or NATO, against their overall technologic supremacy. So, the conflicts as we have witnessed in this century, are more likely to turn into an asymmetric confrontation in which, even the most militarily capable nation can be made vulnerable and exposed (Berman, Felter and Shapiro, 2019, p.6.); conflicts are getting intricate not necessarily for operational or logistical dares/questions, but “because of the conundrum of too much or too little information at any one time ensuring that our understanding is consistently incomplete and inconsistently reliable” (Mackay, Rowland and Tatham, 2011, p.21).

To get the advantage in the Information Age, it could not be sufficient or even appropriate investing on platforms and focusing on traditional approach; to fill the technological gap, the weaker side is keen to acquire “capability specifically designed to counter the […] perceived advantages” (Lawson and Barrons, 2016). However, the reinvented and ambiguous way of fighting the ‘new battle’ “it is not just a ‘weapon of the weak’ but can be employed by the dominant side in a conflict” (Galeotti, 2016).

One of the main features of the modern ‘non-linear’ conflicts is that “the deployment of information weapons […] acts as ‘invisible radiation upon its targets. ‘The population doesn’t even feel it is being acted upon. So, the state doesn’t switch on its self-defence mechanism’ (Veprintsev et al. cited in Pomerantsev, 2019, pp.107). In this regard, Brazzoli points out that “Information warfare (IW) and particularly psychological operations (PsyOps) are major elements in the challenges for future warfare” (Brazzoli, 2007, p.217). While Information Warfare for his nature belongs to the military sphere, information conflict is considered to be an application of information warfare concepts in both military and civilian contexts” (Van Niekerk and Maharaj, 2013, p.1163). Since the beginning of the Twenty-First century it has been obvious how the human advancement has had a crucial impact on the nature of the conflicts; an era where there is the belief that knowledge is the power and where technology had imparted a quick change in the way the information may affect the character of the modern conflicts. The possession of information can create a tremendous advantage on the battlefield as the information is a strategic and influential resource, accessible to all competitors in all domains. This is known as information superiority and information conflicts are focusing on this trait of our changing environment (Brazzoli, 2007, pp. 218-219).

CHAPTER 3

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The main source of information for this paper is based on secondary data collection. The process has been possible through the collection of data available on portals for statistics such as Statista, StatisticBrain, Mintel and other authoritative sources. 

3.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The aim of Chapter 3 is to explain to the reader the methodological approach the author applies in his research. In Chapter 2 the author reviewed the existing literature on the topic, finding out a gap in …
Therefore, it is important to understand the rationale behind his use. Thus, the research question is:
“How social media has been used as a weapon in modern warfare by non-state actors such as Daesh (and its progenitor Al-Qaeda)?”
In order to answer to the above problem, this paper will focus on the following objectives:
d) To understand how social media is a multi-purpose tool in modern warfare,
e) To look at the Daesh Social Media Strategy,
f) To appreciate the contribution of Daesh’s ‘millennials fighters’ on weaponizing social media.

SOCIAL MEDIA AS A MARKETING STRATEGY: A WEAPON OF WAR IN THE DEFENCE BUSINESS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The vociferous expansion of the Internet, and all the more recently social media (web-based life), into society and the consistent day to day existences of its residents, has, in the course of the last decade and a half, brought about an ocean change in the practices and discernments people have corresponding to the data that is shared unreservedly on the web.
Such conduct has brought about the making of a huge vault of data that holds potential incentive as an insight asset, and the development of the open-source specialist as a significant range of abilities inside the systematic collection of the police and other security offices. Online data from the likes of social media, RSS news channels, intelligent road maps and online registry benefits all give significant stores of secondary data that can be utilized to help existing insightful and systematic practices. Thus, this is where terrorist groups such as Deash exploit this treasure trove of data.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Background 

This thesis concentrates on the effect of Social Media on modern information-age warfare. “The adaptation of social media as a tool of modern warfare should not be surprising” (Jarred, 2017, p. 23), as internet technology has evolved impressively in the last two decades. Therefore, it was predictable that social media, at some point, could play an important part in contemporary society, meeting the needs of modern conflicts. After all, it is an inexpensive 'weapon' which, due to its nature, is accessible to everyone on the planet. Every person could create a brand bolstering his message all over the world. Nonstate actors can build influence operations as state actors do as they may access to the same tools.
This paper will adopt an empirical research method through the Daesh case study, which allows the reader to understand how a non-state actor could 'weaponize' social media, affecting the modern information-age conflicts.

1.1.2 Brief Synopsis of Daesh

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), otherwise known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), authoritatively called the Islamic State (IS), and collectively termed as Daesh. It is a psychological oppressor activist gathering and an isolated actor that adheres to a fundamentalist, jihadist principle of Sunni Islam. In short, Daesh is a militant terrorist group based in the Middle East. This study explores how a non-state actor, such as Daesh, has hit the headlines and influence modern warfare remarkably. Daesh made use of the social platform in a way that either a nonstate nor a state actor has never done before. In a few months, it impressed the world, convincing everyone that “war will never be the same again” (Altheide, 2013).
Furthermore, it is worth understanding the rationale behind the Daesh precipitous rise to power within an online social environment using a theoretical context. The Social Cognitive Theory as man’s function is "explained in terms of triadic reciprocity in which behaviour, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other" (Ajzen, 2001). Moreover, in his Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication, Bandura advocates that individuals are also used to acquiring behaviour by observing a model in the mass media ecosystem.  

1.1.3 Social Media as a Weapon

Social media is a weapon because of the power of information – it spreads information faster than any other media such as television and radio. The information might be good or bad, therefore terrorist groups such as Daesh use it to gain a competitive edge to spread their propaganda all over the world free of charge. The internet has outdone each media forms, being a foremost arena for radical mass media movement, besides being an important point for the dispersal of jihadism. Besides, this assessment exhibits that it’s not only partisan protesters who know about the competitive edge of using Social Media, by means of the 3 really famous Social Media locales (YouTube, Twitter, Facebook) have value for the bomber's ability to enlist, convey, train, and sort out potential fear-based oppressors. 
Moreover, militant psychological gatherings are utilizing social media for the purposes of raising money (Madia, 2011). These matters are of specific pertinence to countries such as Pakistan having some enormous Muslim population where rich persons are there as a target for radicalism in Social Media. Additionally, countries such as Australia, face their issues concerning Social Media, concerning a conventional and global uncertainty of psychological-warfare, is replaced by a substantial and difficult to recognize home-grown fear-mongering danger installed in computer-generated realities.
Also, a quick extension was there and boundless growth of 'Jihadist' social media pages as soon as Web 2.0 innovations generally began being available from 2004 going forward. Perhaps, evaluation by Weismann (2007) about the use of the global network by fear-based oppressors confirmed that somewhere in the range of 1998 to 2007, the number of social media handles committed to militant psychological gatherings rose from just around 13 to more than 8,567. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

According to Andrews, Brewster and Day (2018), the appearance of social media (for instance, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter) has made new conveniences for radical associations and carried with it developing difficulties for law requirement and knowledge organizations. While the utilization of online assets by psychological oppressor associations is certainly not another event, what's going on is the move to a more extensive concentration by national knowledge offices towards the expanding risk of 'homegrown' fear-mongering. A survey of surviving writing shows a deficiency of investigation into the association among hypothetical and useful utilization of social media by militant psychological gatherings and the techniques accessible to check such usage. 
All the same, the innate ideal spot as the utmost generally used social media site throughout the planet, the ‘Groups’ feature of Facebook proves to be a priceless device for extremist gatherings when planning and organising folks on the internet in addition to attract individuals who follow their incentives. Gatherings (Facebook Groups) are public by default and people from the gathering could convey solicitations to companions to suggest that they additionally enlist. Right now, it can quickly intensify in magnitude, mostly if there is a partisan reason for existing is involved. As the gathering has a client base, each part conveys warnings or emails to every client who united with the gathering promptly and for free (Ajzen, 2001).  

As Facebook is absolutely fit as a communication platform compared to Twitter, and also suitable to facilitate footages like YouTube, the important capability of Facebook for fear-based oppressor associations is for enrolment purposes. Customarily, the online nearness of a militant psychological association comprised basically of a site and potentially a private gathering to encourage jihadist conversations. The issue with this model, as brought up by a gathering banner on a jihadist site, was that an 'elitist network' was made, with those individuals outwardly experiencing issues getting to the network. Facebook permits psychological-oppressor organizations to stay away from this matter.
The risk established on Twitter arises from the ability to send writings to many people at once, and from the capability for people to follow exact subjects like terrorist groups. Radical associations can exploit the platform by using it to get up-to-date information that develops in the public domain. The terrorist assaults that occurred in 2008 in India present a well-suited matter of the manner in which terrorists’ associations use social media settings. Similar to Facebook, YouTube has numerous utilizations for extremist associations. Videos are a considerably more viable method for imparting an issue than plain content. YouTube would be a significant instrument for terrorist associations. Be that as it may, more significant than basically transferring a message or calling for individuals to make a move is telling them truly the best way to do it; this is the place where the significance of YouTube videos for terrorist associations is really displayed (Aula, 2010).

1.4 Research Gap & Significance of the Project

Systematic and effective use of social media is not new to terroristic groups such as Daesh and its progenitor Al-Qaeda as they had always been “technologically savvy” (Buss, 2009, p. 206). The Internet has always been a multifaceted tool as it is accessible to anyone; furthermore, it could be used anonymously, and for overt means.
In this way, this analysis begins where others such as Madia (2011) have looked into this issue before, understanding that consideration needs to be paid from the viewpoint of adjoining realism, not remotely forced organigram, permitting the author to evaluate points of view utilized by Daesh.

1.5 Objectives & Aims

The research question guiding the author is:
“How has social media been used as a weapon in modern warfare by non-state actors such as Daesh (and its progenitor Al-Qaeda)?”
In order to answer to the above problem, this paper will focus on the following objectives:
a) To understand how Social Media is used as a multi-purpose tool in modern warfare,
b) To understand the Daesh Social Media Strategy,
c) To appreciate the contribution of Daesh’s ‘millennials fighters’ on weaponizing social media

1.6 Dissertation Structure

This thesis will be separated into three sections that will guide the reader towards the conclusion. Chapter 1 introduces the framework of the paper, going through the context of the project and the problem statement of the research with the related aims. Furthermore, it explains the reason why the use of name Daesh is preferable to other names of the terroristic group such as Islamic State (IS), Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), or Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL).
Chapter 2 aims to examine the literature review associated with the spreading of Social Media, the Social Cognitive Theory, and the use of Social Media as a weapon behind the rise to the power of Daesh. Moreover, it will review the literature on contemporary information-age warfare.
Chapter 3 gives the methodology of the research project that was applied in the preparation of this thesis.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction of the Chapter

Social media has always been considered a new topic, and the research on his effect is increasing as it appears to be a living issue. In the recent past, it has affected the information-age warfare as nonstate actors such as Daesh massively uses social media. Despite the spreading of social media, the existing literature is insufficient to cover all its nuances, which advise the importance of a different-perspective examination.
The first part of chapter 2 covers social media as a whole, providing an understanding of what it is; after that, the author reviews the relevant literature by providing an overview of Daesh's use of social media. The third part aims at examining the theoretical framework behind the phenomenon through the lens of mass communication and Social Cognitive Theory. The fourth part will focus on modern conflicts, where information is becoming increasingly influential. This literature review will lead to the conclusions of the chapter, where the author will state the reason for this study.

2.2 Defining Social Media

To recognize the potentials of Social Media, to comprehend their limits, and to appreciate how to get the most of them, the researcher needs to unfold what is behind these two words. One of the biggest mistakes that a citizen, a company, a brand can make is to leap into the social media environment and to use them with no real clue of how they work and how to protect themselves against them. With this in mind, it will indeed be appropriate to answer these questions first: how can we define social media? Do social media have the same meaning all over the world? This will make us understand what was wrongly regarded as familiar from its creation to the present day, highlighting its changed attitude in a different environment. Before diving into the intriguing world of social media, we need to understand when they were created. An apparently easy issue. However, the answers are not unique and do not all agree (Chaffey, 2016). 
Social Media is quickly getting a word which stands for the whole lot to every person, therefore doesn’t exactly denote whatever any longer (Aula, 2010, p. 32). First and foremost, when dealing with this concept, one has to draw a line to two associated concepts, which are often linked with it: and User Generated Content (UGC) as well as Web 2.0. The main idea behind Web 1.0 was to give the users the possibility to visualize static hyperlinks. In fact, consistent with Saravanakumar & SuganthaLakshmi (2012), makers of content remained uncommon during the era of Web 1.0, with the mainstream end-user merely being a consumer. On the other hand, there is the Web 2.0, a term which is closely associated with it thanks to the Web 2.0 Conference by O'Reilly Media at the end of 2004. Technology-wise, it is completely equivalent to Web 1.0, as the network-level infrastructure continues to consist of TCP/IP and HTTP (to add a note), and hypertext is still the basic concept of the relations between the contents. The difference, more than anything else, lies in the contents, which are generated dynamically and the resulting users' approach to the Web, which fundamentally passes by simple consultation the possibility of contributing to populate and nourish the Web with its own contents.

The internet has increasingly been the digital structure in which UGC has grown, empowering handlers to distribute, rate, create, in addition to developing web material as well as web applications. This means the internet developed from a business-to-consumer media for marketing to a platform of peer-to-peer creation and distribution of information is the norm. The role each user can play into the Web is getting much more crucial. Everyone is a potential 'main character' of the new Web at the point that in 2006, the TIME magazine dedicated his mirrored cover as Person of the Year to each of us: "You — Yes, you — Are TIME's Person of the Year” (TIME.com, 2006).
Based on the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that social media is increasingly becoming a vital tool in the hand of each internet user in empowering his role and bolstering his narrative. However, one trouble with examining this field is the lack of standard definitions of social media as they are “fragmented by platform” (Bartlett and Reynolds, 2015). With this in mind, “are social media wolves in sheep’s clothes?”.

2.2.1 Social Media and Daesh

Having set the scene in the contemporary social media arena, the author reviews the relevant literature on how non-state actors such as Daesh uses social media as it is a central part of their modus operandi. 
In 2014 Daesh swept across Iraq with an operation that immediately went viral. Fighters posted selfies during a crucial phase of that battle, far from keeping their actions a secret. The messages shared by the militants were immediately boosted through the main social media platform under the hashtag #AllEyesOnISIS, specifically created for the beginning of the military campaign: suddenly, they went viral. Likewise, Farwell states the victory was inevitable as that powerful and so emotional videos reached and influenced at the same time journalist, adversaries, common people everywhere.
The majority of studies and research point out the effect ISIS has reached in echoing his brand through the main social media platforms. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how they have been able to maintain a presence online, as for the author of this paper, it is the most valuable insight. Internet censorship and his circumvent has always been an issue on a wide range, and Daesh's rise to power has echoed these difficulties.

The devotion to the brand is an issue in our society as the brand is becoming ‘proxy religion’ in today’s life. Everyone should have an interest in empowering his image in the market using emotional or logical messages. Interestingly McDivitt argues that “a brand is not simply an identifier or a label, it is an identity, [it] can be viewed as a seed; it must be designed, positioned and driven to grow” (2003, p. 13). It is not a matter of the companies to brand themselves positioning at the top of the scale: it is also a matter of nations as they try to brand their exclusivity in reference to their cultural identity, historical heritage, and geographical position. Accordingly, branding is not just about the marketing of products or services as it has evolved into the branding of states, countries, and political parties.
However, a gap identified is to understand the reason why a terroristic group relying on terrorist attacks and guerrilla procedures, decide to allocate its (apparently) limited resources to keep a social networking system alive instead of acquiring proper military capabilities.

2.3 Theoretical Context

The theory that’s relevant for this thesis is the social cognitive theory.

2.3.1 Social Cognitive Theory

In his book, Bandura (2001) completely built up his Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) of human working. Right now, corresponding triadic causation, individuals are entertainers just as results of their condition. As indicated by SCT, change of behaviour is possible due to a being in control. If people accept that they are capable of making a move to tackle a problem actively, these folks are progressively obliged to do so then be more focused on the choice. Anticipated self-efficacy is in connection with control of personal action or being an agent. Individuals who accept that they can cause occasions may lead to progressively self-motivated and self-chosen lives.
This cognitive effect mirrors a sense of control in his/her situation. It reflects the belief of possessing the option to ace challenging demands through adaptable activity. Self-efficacy has some sort of result on how people feel, think, and act. A low sense of self-efficacy is related to sorrow, uneasiness, and weakness. However, a strong sense of personal efficacy is recognized with healthier social reconciliation. Regarding logic, a strong sense of cognition reassures cognitive actions and accomplishment in a variety of situations, together with the state of the dynamic, objective setting, and scholastic accomplishment (Bandura, 2001, p. 10).

Result expectations, the other key developments in SCT, are beliefs concerning the outcomes of individual action. Social, self-evaluative, and physical outcome expectations are standard. Individual behaviour could provoke essential variations, responses from other folks, or opinions concerning that individual. In cooperation with self-efficacy, individuals influence unbiassed definition as well as the objective pursuit. SCT has been applied to various such zones as physical and mental welfare in addition to socio-political revolution, among others (Altheide, 2013).

As indicated by social cognitive theory (SCT), human inspiration and activity are broadly directed by thinking ahead. This expectant control instrument includes desires that may allude to the results of undertaking a particular activity. The theory traces various urgent variables that impact conduct. The primary factor is seen as self-viability, which concerns individuals' convictions in their abilities to play out a particular activity required to achieve the ideal result. Result anticipations are the other main development of SCT, which concerns individuals' convictions about the potential outcomes of their activities. Other than these two perceptions, SCT additionally incorporates objectives and perceive hindrances as well as opportunity structures (Bandura, 2009, p, 31).

2.3.2 An Agentic perspective of Social Cognitive Theory

Consistent with Altheide (2013), to be an agent is to purposefully get things going by one's activities. Agency typifies the blessings, conviction frameworks, self-administrative abilities and disseminated structures and capacities through which individual impact worked out, as opposed to living as a discrete element in a specific spot. The main highlights of agency empower individuals to have an influence in their self-improvement, adjustment, and self-restoration with evolving times. Before exhibiting the agentic point of view of social cognitive hypothesis, the changes in outlook that the field of psychology has experienced in its short history warrant a concise conversation. In these hypothetical changes, the main similitudes have changed yet generally, the speculations award people pretty much nothing, assuming any, agentic abilities. 

Perspective changes In Psychological Theorizing.

A significant part of the early psychological theorizing was established on behaviouristic rules that grasped an information yield model connected by an inward channel that makes conduct conceivable yet applies no impact of its own on conduct. Right now, the conduct was formed and controlled naturally and precisely by ecological upgrades. This line of theorizing was in the long run put out of vogue by the approach of the PC, which compared the brain to a natural adding machine. This model filled the inward conductor with a great deal of authentic and computational activities made by shrewd and imaginative scholars (Melki and Jabado, 2016). 

In the event that PCs can perform cognitive activities that take care of issues, the regulative idea could never again be denied to people. The information yield model was replaced by an info straight throughput-yield model. The brain as a computerized PC turned into the calculated model for the occasions. Despite the fact that the careless creature turned into an increasingly cognitive one, it was as yet without cognizance and agentic capacities. For a considerable length of time, the authoritative PC illustration of human working as a direct computational framework wherein data is taken care of through a focal processor that wrenches out arrangements as indicated by predetermined principles. The engineering of the straight PC at the time directed the applied model of human working. 
The straight model was, thus, displaced by more powerfully sorted out computational models that play out various tasks all the while and intuitively to impersonate better how a human’s cerebrum functions. Right now, input initiates a multifaceted unique throughput that delivers the yield. These dynamic models incorporate staggered neural systems with deliberate capacities stopped in a sub-personal official system working with no awareness by means of lower subsystems. Tangible organs convey up data to a neural system going about as the psychological apparatus that does the translating, arrangement, motivation, and directing non-consciously. Suagmann (2019) notes in his investigation of computationalism that it isn't individuals yet their componentized sub-personal parts that are coordinating the game-plans. The individual-level includes exceptional awareness and the purposive utilization of data and self-regulative intends to cause wanted things to occur.

2.4 Defining Modern Conflicts

The ultimate, the foremost, and the utmost performance of ruling which the lawmaker and commandant make is establishing the type of conflict which they’re boarding. There are innumerable shades of war, no one similar to the previous one. It is about technological differences, political environment, social perceptions. However, when it comes to understanding theories behind them and the path to victory, all the nuances of the conflicts come down to a significant dichotomy: asymmetric versus an asymmetric approach. Symmetric conflicts are more about having superior weapons, larger armies: it's about numbers and the control of the territory. The two world wars represent a significant example of a struggle over territory. In this regard, information plays a significant role, but it is not considered as vital as it is in an asymmetric war. Deception campaign, detailed knowledge about the opposing commander, is of little value when compared with physical protection and the overall superiority of the military power.
On the other hand, asymmetric conflicts are considered information-centric as “the struggle is fundamentally not over territory but over people, because the people hold critical information, […] because holding territory is not enough to secure victory”. The new battlefield is much bigger than a physical territory, and his borders belong to everyone. In an asymmetric environment, every weakness could become a strength as the main parameter which affects the players is not based on the number of tanks owned but on the perception of that number. To summarize, irregular conflict challenges the restrictions of the martial area.

In the aftermath of the U.S. victory in the Gulf War against Iraq, an innovative article titled 'Cyberwar is coming!' pointed out the vital role information would have played in modern conflicts. They envisaged the battlefield as a place perceived in a different way by his players like a "chess game where you see the entire board, but your opponent sees only its own pieces—you can win even if he is allowed to start with additional powerful pieces". They warned about the new battles in which 'cyber soldiers' might hinder military capabilities. Moreover, other researchers envisaged what they called ‘net-war […] [as] a new way of thinking and a new way of conflict’. A new approach in waging war, innovative access to the band of war which incorporates social, economic, and political, in addition to martial procedures of warfare. In other words, the availability and the understanding of information itself seen as a weapon utilized in dismantling certainties and putting other individuals in their spot. If this was true almost 30 years ago, it is even truer today as we live in an information society where the threat-scape is endlessly fluctuating through uncertainty, frictions, and misperception. 

The nature of the conflict is evolving much faster than militaries. Possibly, this is intrinsic to the nature of conflicts, but in a networked world with a globalized media and the rapidity of the Web, a vicious circle exist that could swell without warning concerning the significance; only to reduce quickly just when consideration is converted to another place. The weaker side is unlikely to wage war against a military superpower or NATO, against their overall technologic supremacy. So, the conflicts as we have witnessed in this century, are more likely to turn into an asymmetric confrontation in which, even the most militarily capable nation can be made vulnerable and exposed. Conflicts are getting intricate not necessarily for operational or logistical dares/questions, but because of the conundrum of too much or too little information at any one time ensuring that our understanding is consistently incomplete and inconsistently reliable.

To get the advantage in the Information Age, it could not be sufficient or even appropriate investing on platforms and focusing on traditional approach; to fill the technological gap, the weaker side is keen to acquire "capability specifically designed to counter the […] perceived advantages" (Madia, 2011). However, the reinvented and ambiguous way of fighting the 'new battle' is not just a 'weapon of the weak' but can be employed by the dominant side in a conflict.
One of the main features of the modern ‘non-linear’ conflicts is that “the arrangement of data armaments […] is an ‘undistinguishable ramification’ on its target. The targeted people are oblivious to the ramifications. Subsequently, the targeted country does not activate its machinery for self-protection. In this regard, “information warfare (IW) and particularly psychological operations (PsyOps) are major elements in the challenges for future warfare”. While IW for its nature belongs to the military sphere, data skirmishes are well-thought-out to be a bid for data conflict thoughts, in collaboration with the civilian and military settings. Since the beginning of the 21st Century, it has been obvious how the human advancement has had a crucial impact on the nature of the conflicts; an era where there it is the believed that knowledge is power and where technology imparts a quick change in the way the information may affect the character of the modern conflicts. The possession of information can create a tremendous advantage on the battlefield as the information is a strategic and influential resource, accessible to all competitors in all domains. This is known as information superiority, and information conflicts are focusing on this trait of our changing environment. 

2.5 Daesh Vs. Islamic State: Name Matters

The West has never had a coherent strategy to fight it, and it has even known how to call it. Choosing a proper name, it is not a superfluous aspect: chose how to name things is the first step in understanding them. The dispute, in this case, is between calling it the Islamic State or Daesh.
The Islamic State (it also applies to the Is, Isis, Isil variants) refers to a State in all respects, as at least it claims to be the one led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi until September 2019 and now via his inheritor Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi. The so-called Isis was once an Iraqi section of Al-Qaeda, which later became the Islamic State in Iraq, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, and, lastly, proclaimed itself an Islamic State. The flattening of the name down to the pure Islamic State is simply an attempt to remove geographical peculiarities, providing only one State entity. Just think that another way to indicate the Islamic State is al-Dawla, literally 'The State' (Newkirk, Bender, and Hedberg, 2012).
Actually, this state has no real homogeneous borders, nor a united territory. Not surprisingly, the names before the self-proclamation wanted by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in 2014 include specific geographical areas, such as Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham (Arabic term for Greater Syria) or as that Isil in which the 'L' stands for Levante, that is potentially also the territories of Israel, Palestine, Jordan, and Lebanon.

The more real a group is seen to be, the more dominant its status becomes inside its institutional environment (Nicholls, 2012); accordingly, President Obama argued, "ISIL is not Islamic . . . and [is] certainly not a state" as the way we talk about things changes how we perceive them. Thus, the author of this paper prefers to use the term Daesh instead of the Islamic State (in all of its variants).

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


3.1 Introduction of the Chapter

The 3rd section of this thesis applies a quantitative research methodology. The main source of information for this paper is based on secondary data collection.  Chapter 3 describes the methodology which was utilized in gathering data, the measures are taken when leading the exploration, the procedures applied when analysing the data, and the arrangement of information to be gathered. Therefore, this section focuses on the design of the research, the targeted population, sample of the population, sample strategy, in addition to the collection and analysis of the data applied throughout the project. 

3.2 Data Requirement

The kind of data required for this project is secondary in nature. It is correlated with the research objectives mentioned in the first chapter. The process has been possible through the collection of data available on portals for statistics such as Statista, StatisticBrain, Mintel, and other authoritative sources. 

3.3 Design of the Research 

A case study of an exploratory nature was utilized for this research project. The rationale for this choice is because such a strategy provides the convenience of the research question and quicker approach to data. Furthermore, it gives a detailed analysis of the imminent marvels. A research design which is exploratory provides measurable information from transections of the targeted populace. As stated by Torraco (2005), intense research accumulates facts with the aim of filling the empty gap concerning the present position of the question of the research project.
Other research designs were overlooked as they were not appropriate due to the sensitivity of the target sample – terrorist militants on social media. 

3.3.1 Methods of Data Collection

Additionally, this research project makes use of time-series data collected from government publications. The author is inclined to use annual secondary data from 2010 to 2019 from several copies of public and media reviews of Deash, in addition to their social media accounts. The period of the study was selected as a result of information accessibility. Excessive attention is exerted to ensure that just the appropriate statistics are applied.

3.3.2 Methods of Data Analysis

Prior to the investigation, the assembled information was organised. The dataset was checked for missing information and outliers. For this, the "outlier naming guideline" was utilized. All qualities outside the determined range were viewed as outliers. The information was then examined utilizing factual programming SPSS.

3.4 Methodological Review

The tools of research were verified to increase the legitimacy as well as dependability of the data. A pilot-test was completed regarding the available secondary data. Some of the information wasn’t contained within the targeted model. The study helpers were proficient prior to contributing to the research project. Complete and consistent inspection, studying, and validation of data concerning the selected research instrument was performed in ensuring correctness, significance, wholeness, reliability, in addition to standardization of the gathered statistics. This was in agreement with Rosenthal and DiMatteo, (2001).

November 10, 2016

Increasing Internet Speed



Communications firm Safaricom has reported that it will reveal its 4G LTE arrangement the nation over as it looks to extend data utilization among its retail clients. The firm additionally said it would reveal what it named as reasonable data plans that are required to fuel the utilization of the system. The organization said it has expanded the quantity of towns to seven where clients can get to rapid Internet connections utilizing the system. The LTE network was propelled in 2014 and at first; it was accessible in Nairobi and Mombasa. 



Here is a photo of the 4G network


 
The East African Telco giant yesterday said the system is presently accessible in seven noteworthy towns the nation over and is guaranteeing that all real regions are secured. This is a major wager as far as data development. The Head of Consumer Segments at Safaricom said for the client, it will empower them to do significantly more and at better speeds. This implies Safaricom clients in Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Nakuru, Eldoret, Meru and Kisii now have full 4G scope. We are, as of now, setting up an extra five hundred 4G base stations prior to the close of year. The extended system will bring the company's 3G and 4G impression to more than 4,600 destinations. The underlying roll-out of the system confronted challenges, including constrained system scope and absence of 4G-empowered gadgets in the market. There was additionally a general feeling in the market that the firm was rushed in putting resources into the system when it had not depleted the capability of 3G and had a considerable number of clients still on the 2G network.



Concluding Remarks

A large portion of the difficulties that obstructed the organization revealing the system on a business scale had been disposed of and there was a business case for 4G in Kenya. Today, the company has possessed the capacity to move beyond these difficulties. Anybody purchasing a gadget worth about $ 60 can have admittance to the system, which has killed obstructions for some clients and are getting to a point where they may have a minimum amount utilizing 4G.


Furthermore, the firm said it would report new information for clients utilizing the system, including a 4 GB bundle free of charge for clients getting to the system initially. The catch, in any case, is that they need to utilize the whole 4GB bundle inside 48 hours.





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November 7, 2016

Describing Online Jobs



In the last few decades, freelancing has increased in recognition as a job opportunity. Endowed experts can work wherever on the planet through the World Wide Web, working on tasks that are paid an agreed amount of money by diverse customers and corporations.


This photo shows the requirements of online jobs


However, bidding on site like up-work and Freelancer on ad hoc engagements is not usually easy as many people think to be. Conventionally, businesses that have been selling their products or services a few years prefer to outsource their tasks to freelancers in order to avoid paying higher for a full time employee. A full time employee will ask for his/her salary and other benefits, which the new business might not be able to cover.



There are people who are sick and tired of the office. They do not want to hear the sounds of a printer in an office, or the endless telephone calls. Moreover, they do not want to deal with annoying customers. In essence, they wish to be their own boss (employer). When someone hears that others wake up and start their day at 4 AM., they just want to hit the snooze button and go back to sleep.


For someone like him or her, then freelancing is the ideal career. What is often required in freelancing is either a laptop or a desktop computer with a reliable internet connection. On top of that, someone has to be able to write original content, as most potential publishers prefer.


According to a publication by a respected researcher about the diversity of jobs, freelancing (online jobs) offers the freedom to work at will, someone can wake up at 10 am and write some original content for 8-10 hours a day (of course with bathroom breaks of about 15 minutes). Former employees who used to commute through traffic to work every day are able to stay at home and find other employers or clients online. 'It is a free world' as they say in the US.


The good side of online jobs


First is the option of the type of tasks someone is interested in; as an online service provider it can be defined as failure to have a supervisor breathing down your neck every time. Moreover, a freelancer sets his own goals for the day, month, or year. However, he/she has to be in harmony with his online client and convey quality work on time.

This photo shows the good side of online jobs



Second is the issue of remuneration; an online service provider is in a position to negotiate his/her own rates, especially if he/she is dealing with repeat clients and have gained their trust. This is possible in bidding websites where employers/clients hire well-known freelancers.


Small businesses are repeatedly all set to reimburse freelancers an improved fee than their own personnel. Further, they do not have to compensate for extras such as holidays as an element of the agreement. Concisely, the more skills and knowledge a freelancer has in his/her niche gained over the years, the supplementary funds he/she can request.


The bad side of online jobs




Getting work is a one of the major headaches for freelancers; bidding websites are accredited to the scarcity of online jobs. However, other websites give endless opportunities for work. There are many online outworkers in the World Wide Web therefore receiving the tasks requested by a client is competitive. Unless you are one of these forever bold sorts, outsourcing is unpleasant as a hand-to-mouth amusement. 


Concluding remarks

Freelancing is a viable option for a career and the benefits far outweigh the downside. All one needs to invest as capital in his new online venture is a computer with reliable internet connection and investing in power back up systems. The knowledge and skills, which were gained over a couple of years, is important for a freelancer who is bidding for online jobs.




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